Routing in Qwik City is file-system based like Next.js, SvelteKit, SolidStart or Remix. Files and directories in the src/routes have a role in the routing of your application.

  • ๐Ÿ“‚ Directories: Describe the URL segments to match by the router.
  • ๐Ÿ“„ index. files: Page/endpoint.
  • ๐Ÿ–ผ๏ธ layout. files: Nested layout/middleware.

Directory-based routing

Only the directory names are used to match the incoming requests to pages/endpoints.

For example, if you have a file at src/routes/some/path/index.tsx, it will be mapped to the URL path

โ””โ”€โ”€ routes/
    โ”œโ”€โ”€ contact/
    โ”‚   โ””โ”€โ”€ index.mdx         #
    โ”œโ”€โ”€ about/
    โ”‚   โ””โ”€โ”€          #
    โ”œโ”€โ”€ docs/
    โ”‚   โ””โ”€โ”€ [id]/
    โ”‚       โ””โ”€โ”€ index.ts      #
    โ”‚                         #
    โ”œโ”€โ”€ [...catchall]/
    โ”‚   โ””โ”€โ”€ index.tsx         #
    โ””โ”€โ”€ layout.tsx            # This layout is used for all pages
  • [id] is a directory that represents a dynamic route segment, in this example id is the param.
  • [...catchall] is a directory that represents a dynamic catch-all route, in this example catchall is the param.
  • index.ext files are the pages/endpoints.
  • layout.ext files are the layouts.

Dynamic route segments

Special named directories with square brackets, such as [paramName] and [...catchAll] can be used to match route segments which are dynamic:

src/routes/blog/index.tsx โ†’ /blog/:slug (/blog/hello-world)
src/routes/user/[username]/index.tsx โ†’ /user/:username/settings (/user/foo/)
src/routes/post/[...all]/index.tsx โ†’ /post/* (/post/2020/id/title)
โ””โ”€โ”€ routes/
    โ”œโ”€โ”€ blog/
    โ”‚   โ””โ”€โ”€ index.tsx         #
    โ”œโ”€โ”€ post/
    โ”‚   โ””โ”€โ”€ [...all]/
    โ”‚       โ””โ”€โ”€ index.tsx     #
    โ””โ”€โ”€ user/
        โ””โ”€โ”€ [username]/
            โ””โ”€โ”€ index.tsx     #

The folder [username] can be any of the thousands of users that you have in your database. It would be impractical to create a route for each user. Instead, you need to define a Route Parameter (a part of the URL) that will be used to extract the [username].

// src/routes/user/[username]/index.tsx
import { component$ } from '';
import { useLocation } from '';

export default component$(() => {
  const loc = useLocation();
  return <div>Hello {loc.params.username}!</div>;

index. files

Inside the src/routes directory, all files named index are considered pages/endpoints, Qwik supports the following extensions: .ts, .tsx, .md and .mdx.

Pages/endpoints are the leaf nodes of the routing tree, ie, the modules that will handle the request and return a HTTP response.

Page index.tsx

When index.tsx or index.ts exports a Qwik component as the default export, QwikCity will render the component and return a HTML response as a webpage.

// src/routes/index.tsx
import { component$ } from '';

export default component$(() => {
  return <h1>Hello World</h1>;

Endpoint index.tsx

A index.ts can also access the HTTP request directly and return a raw HTTP response without involving any Qwik Component. This is done by exporting an onRequest method or onGet, onPost, onPut, onDelete depending if you only want to handle a specific request given its HTTP method.

// src/routes/index.ts
import { component$ } from '';

export const onGet = ({ json }) => {
  json(200, { message: 'Hello World' });

Notice that in the last example, there is not a default export. This is because we are not rendering a Qwik component, but rather we are handling the request directly, and returning a JSON response. This is useful to implement RESTful APIs or any other type of HTTP endpoint.

Page + Endpoint

As you can see in Qwik City there is no a clear separation between pages and endpoints, in both cases it's a index.tsx file that exports a Qwik component or a onRequest method. However, it's possible to combine both approaches. For example, you can export a onRequest method that will handle the request, and then render a Qwik component.

// src/routes/index.ts
import { component$ } from '';

export const onRequest = ({ headers, query }) => {
  headers.set('Cache-Control', 'private');
  if (query.get('format') === 'json') {
    json(200, { message: 'Hello World' });

export default component$(async () => {
  return <h1>Hello World</h1>;

In this example, a request handle will always set the Cache-Control header to private and the page will be rendered as a HTML page, but if the request contains a format=json query param, the endpoint will return a JSON response instead.

layout. files

Layout modules are very similar to index files, both can handle requests and render Qwik components, however, layouts are designed to work like a middleware, allowing to share UI and request handling (middleware) to a set of routes.

Usually different pages need some common request handling, and share some UI. For example, picture a dashboard site where all the pages under the /admin/* directory:

  • Shared request handling: The request cookies need to be validated before even rendering the page, otherwise render a blank 401 page.
  • Shared UI: All pages share a common header showing the user's name and profile picture.

Instead of repeating the same code in each route, we can use layouts to automatically reuse common parts, and also to add middleware to the route.

Take this src/routes directory as an example:

โ””โ”€โ”€ routes/
    โ”œโ”€โ”€ admin/
    โ”‚   โ”œโ”€โ”€ layout.tsx  <-- This layout is used for all pages under /admin/*
    โ”‚   โ””โ”€โ”€ index.tsx
    โ”œโ”€โ”€ layout.tsx      <-- This layout is used for all pages
    โ””โ”€โ”€ index.tsx

Middleware layouts

Since layouts can implement request handling with onRequest or onGet, onPost, onPut, onDelete, they can be used to implement middleware, for example, to validate the request cookies before rendering the page.

For the route, the onRequest methods will be executed in the following order:

  1. src/routes/layout.tsx's onRequest
  2. src/routes/admin/layout.tsx's onRequest
  3. src/routes/admin/index.tsx's component

Nested layouts

Layouts also provide a way to add common UI to the rendered page. For example, if we want to add a common header to all the routes, we can add a Header component to the root layout.

For the given example, the Qwik components will be rendered in the following order:

  1. src/routes/layout.tsx's component
  2. src/routes/admin/layout.tsx's component
  3. src/routes/admin/index.tsx's component
    <AdminPage />

Advanced routing

Qwik City also supports:

These are discussed later.

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